**Notes:**

1. Relations, Graphs, and Functions

2. Graphing the Basic Functions

3. Using Transformations to Graph Functions

**YouTube Video Tutorials:**

Showing posts with label **reflection**. Show all posts

Showing posts with label **reflection**. Show all posts

Notes on graphing functions using transformations. We cover rigid translations and reflections as well as domain and range.

**Notes:**

1. Relations, Graphs, and Functions

2. Graphing the Basic Functions

3. Using Transformations to Graph Functions

**YouTube Video Tutorials:**

1. Relations, Graphs, and Functions

2. Graphing the Basic Functions

3. Using Transformations to Graph Functions

One way to graph functions is to simply plot points. In this section, we cover a method used to quickly sketch graphs related to some basic functions. Here we focus on **rigid transformations**, that is, transformations that do not change the shape of the graph.

**Vertical Translations:** [ Interactive Graph ]

If*k* is any positive real number then,

The graph of the basic function*f*(*x*) = sqrt(*x*) follows:

Using this basic graph and the vertical translations described above we can sketch*f*(*x*) = sqrt(*x*) + 2 by shifting all of the points up 2 units. Similarly, graph *g*(*x*) = sqrt(*x*) − 3 by shifting all points down 3 units.

**Horizontal Translations: ** [ Interactive Graph ]
If *h* is any positive real number then,

Using the graph of*f*(*x*) = sqrt(*x*) and the horizontal translations described above we can sketch *f*(*x*) = sqrt(*x + *4) by shifting all of the points left 4 units. Similarly, graph *g*(*x*) = sqrt(*x *− 3) by shifting all points right 3 units.

**Reflections:** [ Interactive Graph ]

Given any function *f*(*x*),

Using the graph of*f*(*x*) = sqrt(*x*) sketch the graph of *f*(*x*) = −sqrt(*x*) by reflecting all of the points about the *x*-axis. Similarly, graph *f*(*x*) = sqrt(−*x*) by reflecting all of the points about the *y*-axis.

**Sketch the graph**.
**General Steps for Graphing Functions using Transformations**:

**Graph the function and determine the domain and range**.
**Use the transformations to determine the equation that represents the given function.**

**Example**:

From the general shape of the graph we can determine the basic function and transformations. The graph has the shape of the square root function,

*y* = sqrt(*x*)
Next, notice the reflection about the *y*-axis,

*y* = sqrt(−*x*)
And finally, we see a shift up 1 unit.

*y* = sqrt(−*x*) + 1

**Example**:

The given function has the general shape of the squaring function (parabola),

*y* = *x^*2
Next, notice the shift right 3 units,

*y* = (*x *− 3)*^*2
And finally, we see a shift down 2 units.

*y* = (*x *− 3)*^*2 − 2

**Example**:

The given function has the general shape of the absolute value function,

*y* = abs(*x*)
Next, notice the reflection about the *x*-axis,

*y* = −abs(*x*)
Finally we see a shift left 1 unit and down 2 units

*y* = −abs(*x+*1) − 2

**You Tube Videos**:

If

The graph of the basic function

Using this basic graph and the vertical translations described above we can sketch

Using the graph of

Using the graph of

For the first function *f*(*x*) = −sqrt(*x*) all of the *y*-values are negative which results in a reflection about the *x*-axis. For the second function *f*(*x*) = sqrt(−*x*) all of the *x*-values must be negative thus resulting in a reflection about the *y*-axis.

The -1 indicates a reflection of the graph of the squaring function *f*(*x*) = *x*^2 about the *x*-axis. Be sure to graph the squaring function using a dashed curve because it will be used as a guide and is not the answer. Next, reflect all points about the *x*-axis and draw in the final graph with a solid curve.

1. Identify and graph the basic function using a dashed curve.

2. Identify any reflections first and sketch them using the basic function as a guide.

3. Identify any translations.

4. Use this information to sketch the final graph using a solid curve.

From the general shape of the graph we can determine the basic function and transformations. The graph has the shape of the square root function,

The given function has the general shape of the squaring function (parabola),

The given function has the general shape of the absolute value function,

Click on the 10 question exam covering topics in chapters 1 and 2. Give yourself one hour to try all of the problems and then come back and check your answers.

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